Plastic pipework is used for the conveyance of drinking water, waste water, chemicals, heating fluid and cooling fluids, foodstuffs, ultra-pure liquids, slurries, gases, compressed air and vacuum system applications.
Plastic pipe systems fulfil a wide variety of service requirements. Product standards for plastics pipe systems are prepared within the standards committee known as CEN/TC155.
These requirements are precisely described in a complete set of European Product Standards for each application alongside their specific characteristics.
Conveyance of drinking water: Hygienic requirements
Conveyance of gas: Highest Safety requirements
Plastic pipes for radiant heating and floor heating: Temperature resistance over decades
Sewer applications: High chemical resistance.
Plastic pipes are perfectly capable of fulfilling the specific requirement for each application.
They do so with a high level of performance over a long lifetime and with reliability and safety.
The key factor for success is achieved by maintaining consistently high quality levels.
For plastic pipe products, these levels are closely defined by the different standards.Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plastic_pipework
The costs associated with connecting new devices to the home hydraulicImplementation of hydraulic concrete order is associated with incurring certain costs.
They depend on the scope of these works, which are used in the course of their machines and materials hydraulic and size of installed sanitation.
The valuation carried out the costs associated with the performance of plumbing work are also taken into account the state of water and sewage networks, to which you want to connect a new device, and in case of failure, it is important for the losses which it has led. Therefore workers decent the plumbing before they join to perform their work will present the customer with an accurate estimate and suggest use of such materials that have a reasonable price.
History of water pipe
This was a source of lead-related health problems in the years before the health hazards of ingesting lead were fully understood; among these were stillbirths and high rates of infant mortality. Lead water pipes were still widely used in the early 20th century, and remain in many households. In addition, lead-tin alloy solder was commonly used to join copper pipes, but modern practice uses tin-antimony alloy solder instead, in order to eliminate lead hazards.
Despite the Romans' common use of lead pipes, their aqueducts rarely poisoned people.
Unlike other parts of the world where lead pipes cause poisoning, the Roman water had so much calcium in it that a layer of plaque prevented the water contacting the lead itself.
What often causes confusion is the large amount of evidence of widespread lead poisoning, particularly amongst those who would have had easy access to piped water.
This was an unfortunate result of lead being used in cookware and as an additive to processed food and drink, for example as a preservative in wine.Roman lead pipe inscriptions provided information on the owner to prevent water theft.
Wooden pipes were used in London and elsewhere during the 16th and 17th centuries.
The pipes were hollowed-out logs, which were tapered at the end with a small hole in which the water would pass through.The multiple pipes were then sealed together with hot animal fat.
They were often used in Montreal and Boston in the 1800s, and built-up wooden tubes were widely used in the USA during the 20th century.
These pipes, used in place of corrugated iron or reinforced concrete pipes, were made of sections cut from short lengths of wood. Locking of adjacent rings with hardwood dowel pins produced a flexible structure.
About 100,000 feet of these wooden pipes were installed during WW2 in drainage culverts, storm sewers and conduits, under highways and at army camps, naval stations, airfields and ordnance plants.
Cast iron and ductile iron pipe was long a lower-cost alternative to copper, before the advent of durable plastic materials but special non-conductive fittings must be used where transitions are to be made to other metallic pipes, except for terminal fittings, in order to avoid corrosion owing to electrochemical reactions between dissimilar metals (see galvanic cell).Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_pipe.